Teaching logical relationship by recognizing cohesive devices and analyzing cohesive chains in order to help SMU students comprehend reading texts

Donohadi, Fifi Anggraini (1996) Teaching logical relationship by recognizing cohesive devices and analyzing cohesive chains in order to help SMU students comprehend reading texts. Undergraduate thesis, Widya Mandala Catholic University Surabaya.

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Abstract

Following the development of English teaching in Indonesian SMUs, the foremost and ultimate goal of teaching English at the SMU is to enable students to read English texts. To get this reading ability, SMU students should be trained accordingly during their school years. But in reality many English teachers focus their lessons too much on structures, not on reading for meaning. In teaching reading for meaning, one of the most important things that a teacher should remember is to help the students to identify the logical relationships by recognizing cohesive devices and analyzing cohesive chains. They are very important because they connect words, phrases, sentences, paragraphs to one another, so they make a meaningfully unified reading text. This thesis is intended to deal with the reading comprehension skills, logical relationships, cohesion and to propose steps and techniques in teaching reading through identifying the logical relationships. The reading you are anxiously to improve is the reading you must do to get information. Since the purpose of most reading is to get information, then successful reading is measured by the amount of information you actually get. This is called reading with comprehension. There are three levels of comprehension, they are: literal comprehension, interpretive comprehension, and creative comprehension. To improve the reading comprehension, there are twelve reading comprehension skills. They are: finding the general idea, recognizing reading signals, reading critically, remembering facts, recalling sequence, drawing conclusions, determining cause, evaluating a text, evaluating an author's techniques, recognizing definitions and examples, recognizing headings and subheadings, and outlining. The students have to develop all the reading comprehension skills by identifying the logical relationships. There are 23 logical relationships, they are: generalization, interpretation, comparison, contrast, definition, inference, exemplification, causeeffect, summary, related action, conclusion, amplification, evaluation, restatement, result, alternative, evidence, illustration, answer, parallel idea, related idea, specification, and question. To be able to identify the logical relationships, they have to recognize the cohesive devices and analyze the cohesive chains. Cohesive devices as the phenomena of cohesion are components that cause surface elements to show progressive occurences so that their sequential connectivity is maintained. There are 22 types of cohesive devices. They are: repetition of key words, use of the article 'the', use of a personal pronoun as a substitute word, use of a possesive pronoun, use of a demonstrative with a noun, use of a demonstrative as a substitute for several words or an entire sentence, use of a demonstrative with another substitute word which describes or summarises material in the previuos sentence, a proper name followed by a construction identifying the person or thing named, use of conjunction, use of conjunctive adverbs, use of an adverb, use of prepositional phrases, use of synonym to avoid repetition, use of an expression with a slight change of wording to avoid repetition, repetition of the same word in a different form, repetition of a construction but with a change from singular to plural or from plural to singular, part of an expression substituting for the whole, parallel structure, the name of a place followed by the name of the people belonging to that place, a construction showing class-member relationship, a construction showing whole-part relationship, and semantic connections. Besides recognizing the cohesive devices, the students have to analyze the cohesive chains. There are four types of cohesive chains, namely: referential chain, chain of ellipsis and substitution, conjunctive chain, and lexical chain. Referential chain is divided into the participant chain, the circumstantial chain, and the process chain. The chain of ellipsis and substitution is not divided into another types. The conjunctive chain is divided into the spatial chain, the temporal chain, the cause-effect chain, and the chain of analysis. The lexical chain is divided into comparison-contrast, definition, and generalization. In order to be able to comprehend the text easily, the students have to pay attention to the cohesive devices and the cohesive chains while they are reading the text. All of the cohesive devices and cohesive chains will help them to be able to identify the logical relationships and do the reading comprehension skill exercises easily. For the first quarter students of the first year of SMU are suggested to know the types of cohesive devices, cohesive chains, and the logical relationships. The SMU teachers have to teach them only the simple ones and it increases according to their levels. At last, it is hoped that this thesis will be useful for SMU teachers to help their students comprehend reading texts easily and successfully.

Item Type: Thesis (Undergraduate)
Department: ["eprint_fieldopt_department_Faculty of Teacher Training and Education" not defined]
Subjects: English Education
Divisions: Faculty of Teacher Training and Education > English Education Study Program
Depositing User: EK Lengkonosari PN
Date Deposited: 06 Sep 2016 04:55
Last Modified: 06 Sep 2016 04:55
URI: http://repository.wima.ac.id/id/eprint/6641

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