An analysis of the social and linguistic factors in the use of the standard and non-standard variations by the characters in John Steinbeck's The Grapes of Wrath

Triana, Anna (1997) An analysis of the social and linguistic factors in the use of the standard and non-standard variations by the characters in John Steinbeck's The Grapes of Wrath. Undergraduate thesis, Widya Mandala Catholic University Surabaya.

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Abstract

The writer takes the title "An Analysis of the Social and Linguistic in the Use of the Standard and Non-standard variations by the Characters in John Steinbeck's The Grapes of Wrath". The problems she is going to find out are: What are the speech variations used in the dialogs by the characters in the novel? and What social factors decide the characters to use the speech variations? The writer applies content analysis method in order to find descriptive information to a better understanding of speech variations used by the different characters in the novel. The approach is qualitative and the analysis of the data is done by identifying and describing the speech levels in the dialogs which are divided in Fragments 1 - 5 as used by the different characters in the novel. The research findings are: Fragment 1: The speech variation used by both characters (the driver and the waitress) is non-standard which is very appropriate with the social factors in terms of: (1) solidarity - social distance of the participants which is intimate with high solidarity; (2) status of the participants is that both are of the same low status as driver and waitress; (3) formality of the situation is an informal chat of everyday topic; and (4) function of the speech is referential of low information contents of sharing news after their last meeting, and high affective function to share their emotion and feelings of missing each other and hoping to meet again. Fragment 2: The speech variation used by both participants (the hitch-hiker and the driver is non-standard. The choice of non-standard speech variation is influenced by the social factors in terms of: (1) solidarity-social distance of the participants is a distant relationship. In spite of the fact that both are strangers to each other, they show high solidarity in the use of non-standard speech form, which is effective and efficient; (2) status of the participants is low status and low educational background as both do not heed to regulations; (3) formality of the interaction is an informal situation which makes the choice of non-standard effective in asking for and giving a ride; and (4) functional and informative in conveying each Participant’s intention. Fragment 3: The use of non-standard variation by both speakers (Casy and Joad) can be explained in terms of (1) solidarity - social distance in which Casy with a higher status should have used standard forms and Joad should also have used standard forms to show respect to Casy who used to be his preacher. But both participants ignore their status and show only intimate relationship and both exert high solidarity to each other; (2) status of participants are different and ignored; (3) formality of the interaction is in informal situation; (4) function of the speech is conveying highly referential information after their parting from each other and the speech is also affective in sharing their old acquaintanceship and concern about the house they both used to spend their time. Fragment 4: The use of non-standard and standard variations in this fragment is explained in terms of: (1) solidarity-social distance between the participants is distant between strangers. The sheriff uses non-standard speech variation all throughout the interaction towards Jimson, the trespasser. Jimson shows solidarity also by using non-standard; (2) status of participants is different with the sheriff of a higher status and Jimson of lower status; (3) formality of the interaction is formal, accusation of Jimson's trespassing the plantation; (4) function of the speech for the sheriff is very informative and affective in relaying his accusation and anger against Jimson's trespassing the plantation. Jimson uses nonstandard which is very affective is showing his anger against the sheriff's accusation; he also uses standard forms such as 'outlanders, foreigners' to show that he wants some respect from the sheriff as the sheriff calls him 'you goddanmed squatters'. The switch from non-standard to standard and then to non-standard at the end of the fragment shows affective function of frustration to get some land. Fragment 5: The choice of both standard and nonstandard variations is explained as follows: (1) solidarity- social distance of participants is distant between • Ma and Mrs. Wainwright, and intimate between Ma and Rose of Sharon and the children. They show high solidarity in using non-standard by Mrs. Wainwright towards Ma, Rose and the children while uses standard towards Mrs. Wainwright and the children; (2) status of participants: Mrs. Wainwright is higher as the midwife, while Ma is higher than Sharon and the children; (3) formality of the situation is formal and critical helping Rose give birth to a baby with the children out of the room; (4) function of the speech is very informative and affective in giving orders to use standard form to show authority (Ma towards the children), and show respect (Ma towards Mrs. Wainwright); the use of non-standard by Mrs. Wainwright is to be more intimate towards Ma and Rose and to ease the atmosphere when she is helping deliver the baby. The children use non-standard in their intimate relationship with their mother (Ma) is also very affective to show their curiosity.

Item Type: Thesis (Undergraduate)
Department: ["eprint_fieldopt_department_Faculty of Teacher Training and Education" not defined]
Uncontrolled Keywords: Speech variations: standard and non-standard, character, social factors, fragments
Subjects: English Education
Divisions: Faculty of Teacher Training and Education > English Education Study Program
Depositing User: EK Lengkonosari PN
Date Deposited: 12 Aug 2016 02:16
Last Modified: 12 Aug 2016 02:16
URI: http://repository.wima.ac.id/id/eprint/6753

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